toward a critical race theory of education

Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II. [81] The Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria (estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not have special rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise.[150]. While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote for all parties in federal elections (Nationalratswahlen) to participate in the proportional allocation of seats, there remains the possibility of being elected to a seat directly in one of the 43 regional electoral districts (Direktmandat). Among Austrian Artists and architects one can find the painters Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Rudolf von Alt, Hans Makart, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele, Carl Moll, and Friedensreich Hundertwasser, the photographers Inge Morath and Ernst Haas, and architects like Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos, and Hans Hollein (recipient of the 1985 Pritzker Architecture Prize). It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard, and Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke, Adalbert Stifter, Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson. On 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place. The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ). The elections lead to another landslide victory (37.5%) of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) who formed a coalition-government with the reinvigorated (13.9%) Greens, which was sworn in with Kurz as chancellor on January 7, 2020. Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director. In autumn 1922, Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. 1995 se Austria European Union ke sadasya hae.. Austria ke log German bhasa me baat kare hae, lekin aur kuch log Hungarian, Slovenian … Germany & Austria, Directories of Military and Marine Officers, 1500-1939 (in German) 213,429: Germany and Austria, Military and Marine Unit Histories, 1760-1933 (in German) 134,887: Austria, Mauthausen/Gusen Concentration Camp Death Record Books , 1938-1945 Free: 38,207: Ruhmeshalle der k.k. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and "Millirahmstrudel" (milk-cream strudel). It is composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city. [128] Together, Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Macedonians, and Slovenes make up about 5.1% of Austria's total population. [76] (The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.) Taken as a collective whole, German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by 88.6% of the population, which includes the 2.5% German-born citizens who reside in Austria, followed by Turkish (2.28%), Serbian (2.21%), Croatian (1.63%), English (0.73%), Hungarian (0.51%), Bosnian (0.43%), Polish (0.35%), Albanian (0.35%), Slovenian (0.31%), Czech (0.22%), Arabic (0.22%), and Romanian (0.21%).[12]. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the "Away from Rome" (German: Los-von-Rom) movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church. A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring 2017 a snap election was proclaimed for October 2017. Religion in Austria (2017)[151][152][153]. assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip[45] was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I, which eventually led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). [100] Austria had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.55/10, ranking it 149th globally out of 172 countries. [citation needed] All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months compulsory military service, followed by an eight-year reserve obligation. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. [127] 13,000 Turks were naturalised in 2003 and an unknown number have arrived in Austria at the same time. The Austria national cricket team (German: Österreichische Cricketnationalmannschaft) represents the Republic of Austria in international cricket.The team is organised by the Austrian Cricket Association, which became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 1992 and an associate member in 2017. 70–75, Robert Gellately, Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany, (2001), p. 216, Evan Burr Bukey, Hitler's Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 1938–1945, p. 33, Ian Kershaw, 2001, Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis, p. 83, Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies, p.170, Manfried Rauchensteiner: Der Sonderfall. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. [68] Although most Austrians favoured the Anschluss, in certain parts of Austria the German soldiers were not always welcomed with flowers and joy, especially in Vienna which had Austria's largest Jewish population. Kingdom of Romania: State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs: Kingdom of Italy: Italian Regency of Carnaro: Austria-Hungary or the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a state in Central Europe from 1867 to 1918. Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Austria (German: Österreich), sarkari taur se "Republic of Austria", madhya Europe ke ek des hae. Data for 2018 from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,050,000 members, or 56.9% of the total Austrian population. As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. 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